According to the Lombok chronicle / BabadLombok,Samalas volcano(the ancient name of Mt.Rinjani) was erupted in 1258 and destroy the early civilizations on Lombok.
After few years,a small kingdom of suwung appears which was built by Batara Indera. After the kingdom of suwung collapsed,a new civilizations called Lombok Kingdom appear.
1. The period of Selaparang Kingdom
Over the course of history, Lombok kingdom then suffered destructiondue to the first invasion of Majapahit in at the beginning of the XIII century.Raden Mas Pahit a King Lombok,fled into the woods. When the soldiers of Majapahit returned to Java,Raden Mas Pahit out of the woods and established a new Hindus kingdom with the name Batu Parang or SelaparangI,and the power end during the expedition of Majapahit kingdom in 1357 under Mpu Nala command.
After the Expedition of Majapahit Kingdom,in Lombok stands 4 new Kindom,namely
Bayan Kingdom in the West
Selaparang II kingdom in the East
Langko Kingdom in the middle
Pejanggik Kingdom in the south
Among all Kingdoms above,Selaparang II is the strongest and popular one.This kingdom centered in Labuhan Lombok.This kingdom is located in Lombok bay with fresh water sources are very much, This condition also makes traders from various kingdoms in Nusantara came to visit.it then contributed very encouraging for the kingdom of Lombok. So the condition of the people’s e under the leadership of King Rangkesari, Selaparang kingdom evolved into empire advanced in various fields conomy is increasing. In addition to improving the condition of the kingdom and its people, Selaparang also strengthen his army, both on land and at sea. Over the course of history this Kingdom turn from Hindus to be Muslims.
In 1520,1616 and 1624 the Kingdom of Selaparang attacked by Gelgel kingdom of Bali. This attack came from royal displeasure of Gelgel see the development of Selaparang Kingdom increasing rapidly,Gelgel kingdom considers itself the heir of Majapahit.Gelgel kingdom mobilized his army to attack Selaparang.However,Selaparang kingdom against attack with a vengeance and the attack is able to be broken and Gelgel failure. Unwilling to defeat again, the kingdom of Gelgel set ingenious strategy to combat and control Selaparang Kingdom. Finally Gelgel kingdom has an ingenious strategy to infiltration by sending a people to open habitation and paddy fields in the south west of Lombok.Even Selaparang won against neighboring powers, Gelgel Kingdom. But at the same time a new force has emerged from the western part. The embryos of this power has existed since the beginning of the 15th century with the arrival of illegal immigrant farmers from Karangasem, and further established the colony in area of Mataram,Suranadi,Lingsar,Pagutan,and Pagesangan. The colony was gradually grows and transformed into small kingdoms,that is Pagutan and Pagesangan Kingdom which was established in year of 1622.Because of that, in order to anticipate the strength of that small kingdom,Selaparang put a small troops in the west under Patinglaga Deneq Wirabangsa command.Learning from the failure of the attack in 1520, also take a new strategy by sent Dangyang Nirartha in order to enter a new concept in the form of Hindu-Muslim syncretism.
2. The period of Mataram Karang Asam Kingdom and Arya Banjar Getas
In Selaparang Kingdom suspected to have a serious internal problem, it’s a difference point of views between the King and one of the key figures in the Palace named Arya Banjar Getas. Of these disagreements,finally Arya Banjar Getas and his followers left Selaparang and joined the Kingdom of Pejanggik.
Raden Arya Banjar Getas also able to invite the Kingdom of Pejanggik to participate and join the expedition of MataramKarang Asem Kingdom (Bali) who have successfully landed in west Lombok.
Finally in 1672 selaparang kingdom successfully destructed by military coalition of Arya Banjar Getas, Pejanggik and Mataram Karang Asam Kingdom. Selaparang Kingdom can be conquered almost without resistance. Fourteen years after burned Selaparang, Pejanggik kingdom also razed to the ground by the Kingdom of Mataram Karang Asem in 1686.Beside Pejanggik Mataram kingdom was also destroyed the small kingdoms. Over the course of history, Lombok is divided into two parts west part overpowered by Anak Agung Gde Ngurah,Karang Asam Kingdom and East part overpowered by Arya Banjar Getas.
Since that time the Balinese People came to the West Lombok and develop settlements,Anak Agung Gde Nggurah also order order to build some temple such as Narmada,Lingsar,Suranadi(rebuild),Batu Bolong(rebuild) and Gunung Pengsong.
by Gerry M